Issue 2 (188), article 1


Kibern. vyčisl. teh., 2017, Issue 2 (188), pp.

Grytsenko V.I., Corresponding Member of NAS of Ukraine, Director
International Research and Training Center for Information Technologies and Systems of the NAS of Ukraine and of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine,
av. Acad. Glushkova, 40, Kiev, 03680, Ukraine

Rachkovskij D.A., Doctor of Engineering, Leading Researcher,
Dept. of Neural Information Processing Technologies,
International Research and Training Center for Information Technologies and Systems of the NAS of Ukraine and of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine,
av. Acad. Glushkova, 40, Kiev, 03680, Ukraine

Frolov A.A., Doctor of Biology, Professor,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science FEI,
Technical University of Ostrava, 17 listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic

Gayler R., PhD,
Independent Researcher,
Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Kleyko D., PhD post graduated,
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering,
Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden

Osipov E., PhD, Professor,
Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering,
Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden


Introduction. Neural network models of autoassociative, distributed memory allow storage and retrieval of many items (vectors) where the number of stored items can exceed the vector dimension (the number of neurons in the network). This opens the possibility of a sublinear time search (in the number of stored items) for approximate nearest neighbors among vectors of high dimension.

The purpose of the paper is to review models of autoassociative, distributed memory that can be naturally implemented by neural networks (mainly with local learning rules and iterative dynamics based on information locally available to neurons).

Scope. The survey is focused mainly on the networks of Hopfield, Willshaw, and Potts, that have connections between pairs of neurons and operate on sparse binary vectors. We discuss not only autoassociative memory, but also the generalization properties of these networks. We also consider neural networks with higher-order connections, and networks with a bipartite graph structure for non-binary data with linear constraints.

Conclusions. In conclusion we discuss the relations to similarity search, advantages and drawbacks of these techniques, and topics for further research. An interesting and still not completely resolved question is whether neural autoassociative memories can search for approximate nearest neighbors faster than other index structures for similarity search, in particular for the case of very high dimensional vectors.

Keywords: distributed associative memory, sparse binary vector, Hopfield network, Willshaw memory, Potts model, nearest neighbor, similarity search

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Recieved 15.04.2017